Project Management      

10.      Project Stakeholder Management

A.        Identify Stakeholders

             Identify Stakeholders is the process of identifying stakeholders regularly and analyzing and documenting relevant                   information regarding their interest, interdependencies, influences, and potential impact on project success

             The chance of project success is higher if the process of stakeholder identification and engagement starts on time,

             a.      Input

                      i.     Project Charter

                     ii.     Project Management Plan

                    iii.     Business Documents

                    iv.     Project Documents

                     v.     Agreements

                    vi.     Enterprise Environmental Factors

                   vii.     Organizational Process Assets

              b.      Tools

                      i.        Expert Judgement

                     ii.       Data Gathering

                    iii.     Data Analysis

                    iv.     Data Representation

                     v.       Meetings

                    vi.     Matrix Models

                   vii.   Classification

              c.      Output

                         i.        Stakeholder Register

                        ii.       Change Request

                       iii.     Project Management Plan Update

                       iv.     Project Documents Update

B.         Plan Stakeholder Engagement

              a.      Input

                       i.     Project Charter

                      ii.     Project Management Plan

                     iii.     Stakeholder Register

                     iv.     Assumptions Log

                      v.     Project Documents

                     vi.     Agreements

                    vii.     Enterprise Environmental Factors

                   viii.     Organizational Process Assets

              b.      Tools

                         i.     Expert Judgement

                        ii.     Data Gathering

                       iii.     Data Analysis

                       iv.     Data Representation

                        v.     Decision Making

                       vi.    Meetings

              c.      Output

                          i.        Stakeholder Engagement Plan

C.        Manage Stakeholder Engagement

            Process of communicating and working with the stakeholders to meet their needs and expectations, address issues              and foster appropriate stakeholder involvement.

             a.      Input

                       i.     Project Charter

                      ii.     Project Management Plan

                     iii.     Project Documents

                               a.      Change logs

                               b.      Issue logs

                               c.       Stakeholder register

                     iv.     Enterprise Environmental Factors

                      v.     Organizational Process Assets

             b.      Tools

                       i.     Expert Judgement

                      ii.     Ground Rules

                     iii.     Data Gathering

                     iv.     Communication Skills

                      v.     Meetings

             c.      Output

                       i.        Change Request

                      ii.       Project Management Plan Updates

                     iii.     Project Documents Updates

D.        Monitor Stakeholder Engagement

            Process of monitoring project stakeholder relationship and tailoring strategies for engaging stakeholders through                modifications of engagement strategies and plans.

             a.      Input

                      i.     Project Charter

                     ii.     Project Management Plan

                    iii.     Project Documents

                    iv.     Work Performance Data

                     v.     Enterprise Environmental Factors

                    vi.     Organizational Process Assets

             b.      Tools

                       i.     Data Gathering

                      ii.     Data Analysis

                     iii.     Data Representation

                     iv.     Communication Skills

                      v.     Meetings

              c.      Output

                        i.        Work Performance Information

                       ii.       Change Request

                      iii.     Project Management Plan Updates

                      iv.     Project Documents Updates

A stakeholder is an individual, group, or organization who may affect, be affected by or perceived to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project, program, or portfolio and can have a positive or negative impact.

All Stakeholders must be engaged with

·         Project Managers

·         Project Team Members

·         Senior Management

·         Sponsors

·         Customers

·         End Users

·         Vendors & Suppliers

·         People affected by project output

·         Competitors

·         Social Groups

·         Government

·         Political Leadership

Stakeholder Classification

Grid of Stakeholder Power

The power, interest, influence, and impact that stakeholders have on projects can be mapped through

·         power/interest,

·         power/influence, or

·         influence/impact grids

·         Salience Models


                                                            l Keep               I      Manage       I

                                                            l Them               I      Them            l       Power

                                                            l Satisfied        I     Closely         l                                                                                                                                                                                        l ____________________l_

                                                            l  Monitor         l       Keep Them  l 

                                                            l  Them              l        Informed    l


Salience Models describe the classes of stakeholders based on their:

·         Power

          o   Ability to impose their will

·         Urgency

           o   Need of immediate attention

·         Legitimacy

          o   Appropriateness of their involvement

Stakeholder Engagement Assessment Matrix helps in visualizing the current and desired state of a stakeholder involvement in a project.

·         Unaware  - not aware of project and its impact

·         Resistant – is aware of the impact and is resistant to change

·         Neutral – is aware of project but not supportive or resistant

·         Supportive – is aware of project and is supportive of change

·         Leading ---- is aware of project and actively engaged in project success

Stakeholder     Unaware         Resistant         Neutral            Supportive       Leading

1                                C                                                                                                       D

2                                                          C                        D

3                                                                                     C                           D

4                                                                                     C                                                   D 

C = Current Engagement

D = Desired Engagement

Stakeholder Management Skills

Project Managers need to demonstrate the following traits, while managing stakeholders:

·         Inter-personal Skills

          o   Building trust

          o   Resolving conflict

          o   Active Listening

          o   Over-coming resistance to change

·         Managerial Skills

          o   Facilitate consensus

          o   Influence People

          o   Negotiate Agreements

          o   Modify Organizational Behavior